Part I: Assistance Animals Under The ADA
As I wrote about recently, while the Fair Housing Act (FHA) applies to virtually all areas of a multifamily apartment community, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) only applies to areas of the community open to the public—including, most notably, the leasing office. Accordingly, all aspects of the ADA—including its provisions on service animals—apply to the leasing office. And, generally speaking, most leasing offices that I’m familiar with do not allow animals. In this blog post, I will provide guidance on how to deal with service animals under the ADA at the leasing office (or any other area of the property open to the public). In Part Two, I will give an overview of how to apply both the FHA and ADA in areas of the property where both Acts apply.
The distinction between the FHA and the ADA—and the fact that the ADA applies to only a small area of the property—is important because the Department of Justice’s definition of service animal under the ADA includes only dogs, and specifically excludes emotional support animals. For purposes of the ADA, “service animal” is defined narrowly as any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability. The DOJ regulations specify that the “provision of emotional support, well-being, comfort, or companionship do not constitute work or task for purposes of [the definition of the service animal].” Thus, under the DOJ regulations, trained dogs are the only species of animal that may qualify as service animals under the ADA (note that there is a separate provision regarding miniature horses) and emotional support animals are expressly precluded from qualifying as service animals under the ADA.
It is also extremely important to note that under the ADA, you may only ask: (1) Is this a service animal that is required because of a disability; and (2) What work or tasks has the animal been trained to perform? These are the only two inquiries that an ADA-covered facility may make, even when the disability is not readily apparent—in fact, the foregoing inquiries may not be made when it is obvious that the animal is trained to do work or perform tasks for an individual with a disability (e.g., the dog is observed guiding an individual who is blind or who has low vision). Furthermore, an ADA-covered facility may not require documentation concerning the animal, such as proof that the animal has been certified, trained, or licensed as a service animal.
So, the bottom line is that if a prospect with a service dog enters the leasing office, you may only ask the two questions above, and you may only ask those questions if and only if the disability is non-apparent. Obviously, this is very different from what you are permitted to ask under the Fair Housing Act, and it presents a conundrum in an area of the property where both Acts apply simultaneously. Accordingly, in Part Two of this blog post, I will provide some guidance on how to proceed with service animals and assistance animals at the leasing office.